https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767561/pdf/nihms752582.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767561/pdf/nihms752582.pdf

The opioid epidemic is an escalating public health crises that require a public health response proportionate in scale. Our results suggest that preventing transition to non-oral pharmaceutical opioid use, preventing transition to opioid dependence (by reducing/ maintaining (or eliminating) frequency of PO use), and educating PO users about the risks involved in reasons for use among those non-opioid dependent are important intervention targets